LoRa™ stands for Long Range.
These LoRa™ modems can connected to ever device that wishes to communicate data.
It can be designed to work peer to peer or peer to gateway.
LoRa modems can be used on IoT projects with out LoRaWAN™ protocal.
What is LoRaWAN™
LoRaWAN™ or Long Range Wide Area Network is a star network of devices linked by a single gateway.
This LoRaWAN™ uses LoRa modems connected to each device that wishes to communicate.
Many gateways can be used to cover a larger area depending on requirements.
Bi-directional end-devices (Class A): End-devices of Class A allow for bi-directional communications whereby each end-device's uplink transmission is
followed by two short downlink receive windows. The transmission slot scheduled by the end-device is based on its own communication needs with a
small variation based on a random time basis (ALOHA-type of protocol). This Class A operation is the lowest power end-device system for applications
that only require downlink communication from the server shortly after the end-device has sent an uplink transmission.
Downlink communications from the server at any other time will have to wait until the next scheduled uplink.
LoRaWAN™ Class B
Bi-directional end-devices with scheduled receive slots (Class B): In addition to the Class A random receive windows, Class B devices open extra receive windows
at scheduled times. In order for the End-device to open its receive window at the scheduled time it receives a time synchronized Beacon from the gateway.
This allows the server to know when the end-device is listening.
LoRaWAN™ Class C
Bi-directional end-devices with maximal receive slots (Class C): End-devices of Class C have nearly continuously open receive windows, only closed when transmitting.
LoRaWAN™ Security issues and it's down fall. 2017 prediction
LoRaWAN™ was designed with very poor security. The protocol expects you to keep a database of AES keys for all edge devices.
This will be the downfall of the LoRaWAN™ protocol. It is a pity they did not see fit to use real security.
Lets keep 10's of thousands of AES keys in a single database to be hacked once!
Now they have reduced the security by a factor of 10,000's.
The poor security designers of LoRaWAN must be new to security and require a refresher.
I have decided that this protocol is flawed, i will not use it for any projects in the field that has security as a main requirement.
User BEWARE with LoRaWAN™.